In order to facilitate clear and comprehensive overview of the heating and cooling markets, Euroheat & Power, in cooperation with 13 partners across Europe and with support from the Intelligent Energy Europe programme carried out the EcoHeatCool project finalized in December 2006. The project covered 32 countries including EU 27 Member States, two accession and three EFTA countries and used a top down and a demand side approach based on IEA/Eurostat data. The main objective was to assess the heating and cooling markets, to look for possibilities for more district heating and district cooling in Europe, to provide recommendations for policy makers and develop a tool for assessing the efficiency of heating and cooling systems. It resulted in six reports which can all be downloaded from the project website. The project provides an aggregate and comprehensive picture of the heating and cooling markets and of the district heating and cooling sectors in Europe 32. Available potentials for various heat and cooling generation sources (including renewables) as well as deriving benefits in terms of energy efficiency, energy savings are assessed. Recommendations for strategies on how to further develop sustainable and cost effective heat and cooling supply options and how to improve the use of local sources are provided.
The possibility of doubling the district heat deliveries of 2003 has been assessed in the light of international apprehensions, national growth rates over the past 10 years and national/regional conditions (expansion factors). In this case, the district heating share in the final heat and electricity demand is assumed to increase from 6% to 12%. This corresponds to increased deliveries of 4.7% per year until 2020. Nevertheless the benefits are clear. Higher energy efficiency will reduce primary energy supply by 2,6% (2003) or 2,1 EJ (50,7 Mtoe)/year (equal to primary energy supply of Sweden). Higher security of supply will reduce the import dependency with 4,5 EJ (105,4 Mtoe)/year (equal primary energy supply of Poland). Lower carbon dioxide emissions will annually be reduced with 404 million tons, corresponding to 9,3 % of the current emissions (equaling current emissions of France from fuel combustion). Furthermore district cooling could avoid 50 to 60 TWh of the yearly electricity consumption and 40 to 50 millions tonnes of CO2 emissions annually if 25% of the cooling demand would be delivered from district cooling systems by 2020.
The total investment costs for doubling the heat sales can be estimated to 150 billion. The overall profitability for the society depends on the fuel prices but at high fuel prices paybacks for the society 6-10 years can be envisaged.
The findings of the project enabled to raise awareness and start the recognition of the fact that district heating is the link between the supply side and demand. The benefits and possible potential for the extension of the DH and DC have been identified. The connection between the development of CHP, RES and DHC is underlined. The project has also put forward a methodology for assessing heat and cooling efficiency using primary resource factors. The project made visible the heat and DHC market in Europe, identified its specificity and differences with the heat market especially in the Commission.The results of the project started to be used as arguments in the national policies discussions.